author = {BADILLO, P.-Y. and BOURGEOIS, D. and LESOURD, J.B.},
    title = {Media Ownership and Concentration in : France},
    year = {2016},
    booktitle = {Who Owns the World's Media ? Media Concentration and Ownership around the World},
    editor = {Noam E., and The International Media Concentration Collaboration, including Badillo, P.-Y., Bourgeois D., Hayashi, K., Lesourd, J.B., Nakamura, K.},
    publisher = {Oxford University Press},
    x-publicationlocation = {New-York, Etats-Unis},
    abstract = {This chapter turns to media ownership and concentration in France. Once it has given an overview of the French media landscape, the main body of the chapter considers print media (newspapers, book publishing, magazine publishing), audiovisual media (radio, broadcast television, cable providers, satellite TV, video channels, film), telecommunications media (wireline and wireless telecom), and Internet media (Internet Service Providers, search engines, online news market). Scale effects favor large groups, like Lagard\`ere, Vivendi, and France Telecom/Orange. Successful newcomers and challengers are Altice and Iliad. There have been major consolidations. Scope effects are also among the drivers of concentration, leading to a penetration of telecom and Internet sectors into the media industry. Newspaper publishing and television are also concentrated.},
    keywords = {French media market;Orange;audiovisual media;telecommunications;Internet;Lagardere;Viveni;France Telecom;Bouygues;Numericable;France Televisions;},
    x-audience = {Non sp\'ecifi\'ee},
    x-popularlevel = {Non},
    x-publisherlink = {http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199987238.001.0001/acprof-9780199987238-chapter-5},
    doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199987238.003.0005},
    x-language = {},